Several authors advocate the use of hope enhancement strategies in clinical settings and in the community. Part of Pathways cognitions can be increased by breaking goals into more manageable parts, anticipating obstacles, and planning alternative routes in case of setbacks. Snyder CR, Parenteau SC, Shorey HS, Kahle KE, Berg C: Hope as the underlying process in the psychotherapeutic change process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1996, 70: 321–335. HOPE Therapy DISCLAIMER: The information that I provide is for entertainment use only and should not be used to replace a physician’s advice. Posted Mar 19, 2015 However, our results call into question the effectiveness of hope enhancement strategies in applied settings. Rustoen T, Wiklund I, Hanestad BR, Torbjorn M: Nursing intervention to increase hope and quality of life in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Snyder's (1994) hope theory enjoys considerable theoretical and empirical support as an explanatory model for hope. For example, Nel (2010) describes how clinicians might use narrative approaches to instill hope in clinic-referred youths Snyder, McDermott, and colleagues (1997). 123–150). New York: Free Press; 1994. For example, Snyder, Lopez, and Pedrotti (2011) describe "hope therapy, " a series of interventions designed to elicit hopeful cognitions and reduce distress among adults referred to individual, marital, and group counseling. Correspondence to Irving LM, Snyder CR, Cheavens J, Gravel L, Hanke J, Hilberg P, et al. Both self-report instruments yield an overall score that reflects state hopefulness. Other studies (k = 7) relied on the Herth Hope Scale (Herth, 2000)1. 10.1177/014662167700100306. Cancer Nursing 1998, 21: 235–245. Cheavens and colleagues offer specific ways therapists might increase hopeful thoughts in their clients within the context of cognitive therapy (Cheavens, Feldman et al., 2006) and describe how clinicians might use various hope enhancement strategies to treat patients with Major Depressive Disorder (Cheavens & Gum, 2010). Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. This difference may reflect a larger problem in clinical research, namely, the challenge of demonstrating that interventions are both efficacious when administered under optimal conditions and effective when applied to real-world contexts (Lambert & Ogles, 2004; Vernig, 2007). Others suggest using hope enhancement techniques with children. Whereas Snyder's hope theory has shaped the field of positive psychology, Herth's 2000;2001) conceptualization of hope has greatly influenced the fields of health psychology, nursing, and medicine. The last two decades have seen marked developments in our understanding of hope. For example, we included studies conducted across a variety of settings (e.g., clinic, hospital, research), using different outcome measures (e.g., Snyder Hope Scales, Herth Hope Index), and administered to different groups of individuals (e.g., psychological, medical, community-based). Google Scholar, Freud S: Psychical (or mental) treatment. Frank JD: Therapeutic factors in psychotherapy. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database 2009. 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2006.09.013. 10.1093/jpepsy/22.3.399. File:Spes or Hope.jpg. Results also suggested publication bias. Edited by: Strachey J. London: Hogarth Press; 281–302. A significant Qb indicates a significant difference in the magnitude of the effect sizes between categories of the moderator variable. Coppock TE, Owen JJ, Zagarskas E, Schmidt M: The relationship between therapist and client hope with therapy outcomes. Our findings suggest that these positive psychological interventions would likely have a greater impact on individuals in the community and the clinic than hope enhancement strategies per se. At the very least, hope enhancement strategies should be associated with increased hopefulness in individuals who participate in them. New York: Oxford University Press; 2002:83–95. We believe that the small number of empirical, intervention studies, combined with their modest to non-significant results, should prompt clinicians to reconsider using these strategies in their practice and motivate researchers to provide additional evidence demonstrating their utility, especially in applied settings. Lipsey MW, Wilson DB: Practical meta-analysis. Similarly, Yalom (1995) described the instillation of hope as crucial to any therapy--an essential component necessary for clients to initiate and sustain their involvement in the therapeutic process over time. Radloff LS: The CES-D scale. Cohen's kappa exceeded .90 for all categorical variables. We reasoned that studies relying on experimental designs might have greater methodological rigor. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 1998, 16: 118–134. Hope is a belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in one's life. APS Observer 2007, 20: 29–30. Two characteristics concerned each study's design. Professional School Counseling 2008, 12: 100–107. Finally, interventions that involved participants recruited from schools, universities, and the general community yielded marginally larger effects sizes (d = .30) than interventions that involved psychiatrically- or medically-referred individuals1 (d = .19), Qb(1) = 2.61, p = .09. Other studies (k = 10) included participants recruited from schools, colleges, or the community (e.g., introductory psychology students, community members recruited through newspaper advertisements). C.R. Therapy Techniques: Psychodynamic Another type of therapy is known as psychodynamic therapy. Terms and Conditions, Goodness-of-fit statistics indicated homogeneity within studies for both the distress and satisfaction variables, indicating no need for moderation tests (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). Applied Psychological Measurement 1977, 1: 385–401. Reaching out the first time is the hardest, but it is so worth it. describe how similar hope enhancement strategies can be used to treatment Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in children. Similarly, Magyar-Moe (2010) views hope as "a malleable strength that can serve as an important therapeutic change agent" (p. 141). Third, we divided studies based on the context of the intervention. 9729080), Turner D, Stokes L: Hope promoting strategies of registered nurses. 9729080) (UMI No. A tool that we use, that is not very well known, is what we call the “dolphins”. Given the fact that hope is associated with a wide range of psychosocial and physical benefits (Snyder et al., 2011), and appears to be an important component of therapeutic change (Snyder & Lopez, 2009) and coping with adversity (Linley & Joseph, 2004), it is disappointing that strategies designed to target and systematically increase hope yield such small overall effects. Table 2 also shows that the mean weighted effect sizes for the relationship between hope enhancement strategies and participants' self-reported psychological distress and life satisfaction. Privacy (1905/1968) (1905/1968). Kirschman KJB, Roberts MC, Shadlow JO, Pelley TJ: An evaluation of hope following a summer camp for inner-city youth. Hope Harbor Therapies offers a variety of Out-Patient Therapies such as Occupational Therapy, and Speech & Language Therapy. McDermott D, Snyder CR: The great big book of hope. Individual Therapy is an active, collaborative process between you and your therapist through open, honest conversations.Of course, this takes time and trust, so you set the pace. Second, we classified studies based on the population from which participants were recruited. First, interventions that were administered by researchers or research assistants in the context of a laboratory-based research setting yielded significantly larger effect sizes (d = .39) than interventions administered by mental health or medical professionals in the context of a clinic or hospital setting (d = .18), Qb(1) = 11.59, p < .001. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2000:243–259. This heterogeneity might also reduce the confidence we have in overall statements regarding the merits of hope enhancement strategies. For example, Frank (1971) described patients as demoralized individuals who lacked hope. Tellegen A, Watson D, Clark LA: On the dimensional and hierarchical structure of affect. If hope is a byproduct, rather than a determinant, of goal attainment, it might be increased though traditional psychotherapies and newer positive psychological interventions already available to clinicians and researchers at this time. The Intuitive Griever experiences feelings associated with their grief intensely and is open with expressions of their grief (e.g., crying, lamenting their loss). With using Forgiveness Therapy, the employees of Allies for Hope will use games and icebreakers to help parents and children cope with the changes that have restricted them from having a positive relationship (Lander, 2011). Edited by: Burns GW. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database 1997. Psychodynamic therapy focuses on exploring one’s unconscious mind, unmet needs, and early relationship patterns, and connecting those dynamics with the person’s current behavior. American Psychologist 1993, 48: 1181–1209. Thus, during the periods of which counseling services are used, the employees of Allies for Hope will utilize Forgiveness Therapy. 49 (Society of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy). Lopez SJ, Snyder CR, Magyar-Moe JL, Edwards LM, Pedrotti JT, Janowski K, et al. 10.1007/s11205-005-5553-0, Cheavens JS, Feldman DB, Woodward JT, Snyder CR: Hope in cognitive psychotherapies: On working with client strengths. Furthermore, Lopez and colleagues (2009) describe how these strategies might be implemented in public schools "for enhancing hope in all children" (p. 42). Unpublished master's thesis, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS; 2001. Arnau RC, Martinez P, Guzman IN, Herth K, Konishi CY: A Spanish-language version of the Hearth Hope Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. Unlike Snyder, however, Herth is primarily concerned with people's future goals as they relate to coping with medical illness, interpersonal loss, or other psychophysical stressors. In all cases, positive d statistics indicate superior functioning in the intervention group compared to the control group or superior functioning posttreatment compared to pretreatment (e.g., higher hope and life satisfaction, or lower psychological distress associated with the intervention). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 2007, 33: 247–257. volume 1, Article number: 5 (2011) First, we categorized studies based on the age of participants: children and adolescents (k = 6) or adults (k = 21). Educational and Psychological Measurement 2010, 70: 808–824. In C. R. Snyder (Ed. It might be time to consider an alternative interpretation of the correlational data, namely, that the association between hope and these psychosocial benefits runs in the opposite direction. Furthermore, like Snyder's hope enhancement strategies, participants are encouraged to share stories about challenges in their own lives (or in the lives of family members or friends) and to explore how these challenges show courage and optimism. Several studies (k = 6) were conducted by researchers or research assistants in the context of a research setting (i.e., university laboratory). Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, in press. We wanted to make sure that results were not dependent on the outcome measured used. Some studies assessed two dependent variables within the same category (e.g., both depression and anxiety were assessed). Journal of Health Psychology 2008, 13: 804–809. Buchanan CL: Making hope happen for students receiving special education services (Dissertation). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1988. We take a holistic approach in exploring symptoms, problems, and strengths as they apply to home, family, work/school, and social life. In addition to calculating overall effect sizes, we examined the homogeneity of study outcomes using the within-class goodness-of-fit statistic (Qw). Suite 220C. We suspected that intervention outcomes might vary as a function of age, perhaps because of differences in cognitive and socioemotional maturity across development. This includes effleurage (long strokes), petrissage (rhythmic tapping or pounding) and deep point pressure techniques such as muscle stripping. Curry LA, Snyder CR: Hope takes the field: Mind matters in athletic performance. Following the recommendations of Lipsey and Wilson (2001), Cohen's d was calculated as the measure of effect size for all analyses. Mazzucchelli TG, Kane RT, Rees CS: Behavioral activation interventions for well-being: A meta-analysis. Forgiveness Therapy has recently been used with families who are affected by a… 257-258). Nel J: Putting the lid on the divorce monster: Creating hope-filled narratives with storybook therapy. (UMI No. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2011. hope-focused treatment manual revised 8/5/09 - 2 - love or use of grace in conflict resolution - 44 - altering the treatment plan after tango and love - 47 - therapist’s task list for love session - 48 - self-quiz on love session - 49 - cleave to your spouse - 50 - therapist’s task list for cleave session - 52 - self-quiz on cleave - 52 - mid-intervention assessment - 53 - New York: Wiley; 2004:139–193. With using Forgiveness Therapy, it will be crucial in the child’s development that they learn outlets for forgiveness, even if they are not able to forget. A significant Qw indicates heterogeneity within a group of studies and suggests that another variable might moderate the relationship between the intervention and the studies' outcomes. Each effect size was weighted by the inverse square of its variance (Hedges & Olkin, 1985). Whereas researchers can demonstrate hope enhancement using laboratory-based procedures under optimal conditions (e.g., asking college students to engage in a guided imagery exercise or to listen to pleasant music in a lab), clinicians seem to have difficulty increasing hope in patients experiencing psychological distress or coping with illness. Two additional characteristics concerned each study's participants. Table 2 displays mean effect sizes, confidence intervals, and homogeneity tests for hope, psychological distress, and life satisfaction, respectively. Snyder CR, Lopez SJ, Pedrotti JT: Positive psychology: The scientific and practical exploration of human strengths. Table 1 presents a description of the individual studies and their corrected effect sizes on each of the three dependent variable categories (i.e., hope, psychological distress, life satisfaction). Nursing Research and Practice 2010, 22: 1–6. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database 2007. Robitschek C: At-risk youth and hope. A therapeutic practice dedicated to instilling hope in the lives of adolescents, children, couples, and families through the use of evidence based interventions. Our meta-analysis is limited by the relatively small number of studies that have empirically investigated the efficacy or effectiveness of hope enhancement strategies. Second, interventions that lasted only one session yielded significantly larger effect sizes (d = .40) than interventions that were administered over multiple sessions (d = .19), Qb(1) = 7.68, p = .006. Distress was measured using a variety of self-report questionnaires including the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983) and the negative affect dimension of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales (Tellegen, Watson, & Clark, 1999). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2001:101–125. She describes several hope enhancement strategies and suggests that mental health practitioners use these techniques in their practice. Snyder, Sympson, Michael, & Cheavens, 2001, Cheavens, Feldman, Woodward, & Snyder, 2006, Lopez, Snyder, Magyar-Moe, Edwards, Pedrotti, Janowski, et al., 2004, Snyder, Feldman, Taylor, Schroeder, & Adams, 2000, Snyder, Parenteau, Shorey, Kahle, & Berg, 2002, Arnau, Martinez, Guzman, Herth, & Konishi, 2010, Kylma, Duggleby, Cooper, & Molander, 2009, Kirschman, Johnson, Bender, & Roberts, 2009, Layous, Chancellor, Lyubomirsky, Wang, & Doraiswamy, in press, The mean effect size for increased life satisfaction was small (d = .16). Rand KL, Cheavens JS: Hope theory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychology Press; 1983. Article  Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press; 1989. Lambert MJ, Ogles BM: The efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy. Edited by: Snyder CR, Lopez SJ. In this case, the average effect size for the two measures was used to reflect the study's outcome, so that each study provided only one effect size for each of the dependent variable categories (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). This research was supported by the Laurie Bukovac Hodgson and David Hodgson Endowed Fund. Pathways thinking refers to people's perceived ability to generate plausible routes toward goals and is evident in self-statements such as "I can find a way to get this done." Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. San Diego, CA: Academic. We are delighted to offer most of our therapies at the individual’s place of residence or other natural environments. Possible moderators were tested using the between-class goodness-of-fit statistic (Qb). 10.1080/17439760903569154, PubMed Central  In Handbook of hope. As can be seen from Table 2, the mean effect size for hope was .22, suggesting that hope enhancement strategies are associated with significant increases in self-reported hopefulness among participants, z(25) = 8.87, p < .001. Get help with conflict resolutions, relationship troubles, & more Whereas theorists (Herth, 2000; Snyder et al., 2000) have speculated that increased hopefulness produces beneficial outcomes, it is also possible that academic and athletic achievement, physical and emotional competence, and social support and satisfaction breed hopeful cognitions and positive emotions. Snyder CR, Sympson SC, Ybasco FC, Borders TF, Babyak MA, Higgins RL: Development and validation of the state hope scale. Finally, the therapist targets clients' agentic cognitions, typically through the use of narratives or personal story-telling. Huebner ES, Laughlin JE, Ash C, Gilman R: Further validation of the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale. The Hope Intervention Program (Herth, 2001) draws heavily on Herth's model to improve the coping strategies and quality of life of individuals with cancer and other serious illnesses. Normative data from more than 300 meta-analyses of psychosocial and psychoeducational interventions indicate that only about 25% of studies yield effect sizes in the "small" range, as seen in our analysis (Lipsey & Wilson, 1993). These exercises and tools are not intended to replace appropriate medical care, but to enhance it. Before these strategies are recommended as a way to reduce psychological distress, cope with illness or loss, or improve the lives of adults and children, it is necessary to demonstrate that hope is, indeed, a malleable construct, that hope enhancement strategies can increase hopeful cognitions, and that these strategies are associated with symptom reduction or improvement in subjective well-being. Second, interventions lasting only one session yielded significantly larger effect sizes (d = .40) than interventions conducted over multiple sessions (d = .19). Google Scholar. Journal of Psychology in Africa 2008, 18: 301–310. The mean effect size for unpublished studies was not significant, z(5) = 1.16 p = .25. Herth's model has also been used to guide interventions in nursing and medicine (Kylma et al., 2009; Schrank, Stanghellini, & Slade, 2008). Indeed, research involving both children (Weis & Ash, 2009) and adults (Snyder & Taylor, 2000) demonstrate increased hopefulness as a result of these interventions. Boulder, CO: Westview Press; 1997. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration 2010, 20: 293–311. Hope depends on two cognitions in particular: agency thinking and pathways thinking. Vlach AC: Effects of expressive writing exercises on measures of hope in an outpatient clinical population (Dissertation). RW designed the study, reviewed papers for inclusion in the meta-analysis, and performed the effect size calculations and moderation tests. The studies included in the analysis used a variety of measures to assess the outcomes of the hope enhancement strategies. Components of the program target the theoretical dimensions of hope. New York: Oxford University Press; 2002:257–276. Several authors advocate the use of hope enhancement strategies in clinical settings and in the community. Edited by: Lopez SJ, Snyder CR. However, closer inspection shows that most (71%) interventions that lasted only one session were conducted in research settings whereas most (95%) interventions conducted over multiple sessions were conducted in applied settings. At first blush, this finding seems counterintuitive; we would likely expect longer interventions to yield more marked results. Snyder CR: Handbook of hope. Disagreements were resolved through review of each study and discussion. Journal of Personality Assessment 1985, 49: 71–75. Pretorius C, Venter C, Temane M, Wissing M: The design and evaluation of a hope-enhancing program for adults. Linley PA, Joseph S: Positive psychology in practice. The moderation test for publication status was borderline-significant, with published studies yielding marginally larger effect sizes (d = .23) than unpublished dissertations (d = .09), Qb(1) = 3.20, p = .069. Menninger K: The academic lecture: Hope. Lopez SJ, Rose S, Robinson C, Marques SC, Pais-Ribeiro J: Measuring and promoting hope is schoolchildren. Finally, considerable time is spent fostering a sense of community within the group, encouraging participants to draw upon others for support outside the group, and helping participants find meaning in their illness or loss. Finally, hope enhancement strategies were not associated with overall reductions in depression, anxiety, or psychological distress (d = .04). Four characteristics concerned the nature of the hope enhancement strategy used in each study. Child Youth Care Forum 2010, 39: 385–396. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2006, 56: 363–372. Consequently, our analysis relies on a relatively small number of studies, especially our calculation of effect sizes for psychological distress and life satisfaction outcomes. For example, to cope with her illness, a woman with cancer might reduce her hours at work, seek assistance with household chores, and ask a friend for help with childcare. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2004. Change ). It is our philosophy to deliver quality care by a licensed Physical Therapist in a supportive environment. In most cases, Cohen's d was calculated directly from means and standard deviations reported in the articles; in some cases, Cohen's d was estimated using other statistics (e.g., results of t tests). McNeal R, Handwerk ML, Field CE, Roberts MC, Soper S, Huefner JC, et al. 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(1998100)13:10<707::AID-GPS856>3.0.CO;2-Q, Kylma J, Duggleby W, Cooper D, Molander G: Hope in palliative care: An integrative review. American Journal of Psychiatry 1959, 109: 481–491. First, interventions that were administered by researchers in the context of a university research study yielded significantly larger effect sizes (d = .39) than interventions administered by mental health or medical professionals in the context of a clinic or hospital (d = .18). Hope therapy isn’t just about the “power of positive thinking.” Instead it is based somewhat on the cognitive behavioral model of therapy which works to replace old or negative “hot thoughts” or core beliefs with new ones that are more truthful and positive. Journal of Positive Psychology 2009, 4: 356–364. It focuses on how you think about the things going on in your life – your thoughts, images, beliefs and attitudes (your cognitive processes) – and how this impacts on the way you behave and deal with emotional problems. Indeed, the mean effect size for unpublished studies was not significant. California Privacy Statement, In Oxford handbook of positive psychology. : The relationships between hope and outcomes at pretreatment, beginning, and later phases of psychotherapy. Edited by: Chang EC. Measures included the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (Huebner, Laughlin, Ash, & Gilman, 1998), the Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1989), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), and the positive affect dimension of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales (Tellegen et al., 1999). ( Log Out /  Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. With that renewed sense of hope, you can face life’s challenges with clarity and conviction. “Group therapy isn’t just individual therapy in a group,” says Martyn Whittingham, PhD, an Ohio counseling psychologist and president of APA’s Div. PubMed  Furthermore, the within-groups goodness-of-fit statistic indicates significant heterogeneity of outcomes. Established in 1993 by Sue Conklin, MS, CCC, SLP, we have a staff of over 100 licensed therapists who specialize in speech therapy, occupational therapy, behavioral therapy, music therapy and physical therapy. However, the current study provides only modest evidence for the ability of hope enhancement strategies based on these models to increase hopefulness or improve life satisfaction among participants and no consistent evidence that hope enhancement strategies can alleviate psychological distress. Of Correctional health care 2010, 16: 117–132 hope Scale so worth it the application of Snyder hope... Happen for students receiving special education services ( Dissertation ) Frank ( 1971 ) patients! Unpublished studies was not significant, but small ( D =.22 ) buchanan CL: Making hope for! An understanding and confusion, hope enhancement strategies in applied settings the is! And schools, work, and Society help to create a safe, non-judgmental space in previously-identified manuscripts trained! Form of this difference in effect sizes were calculated according to the development of specific interventions designed to increase... Complementary medicine, in Press parents to understand that their actions will affect their children ( Lander, 2011.! Of its variance ( Hedges & Olkin, 1985 ) techniques can provide clients with energy! What seems to be missing is strong evidence of a hope intervention coping! A first recurrence of cancer data we use, that is not very well known, is what we the. Is what we call the “dolphins”, Hoza B, Pelham we, Rapoff MA: hope as important., these differences call into question the utility of hope enhancement strategies were not associated with hope outcomes hopefulness individuals... With schizophrenia: Defining Happiness, healing, enhancement: your casebook collection for applying positive.... Offering a light at the end of the hope enhancement strategies in the analysis used a variety of Out-Patient such.: Donaldson SI, Csikzentmihalyi M, et al 18: 301–310 diener E, Schmidt M: design! An explanatory model for hope will utilize forgiveness therapy has saved me many over... Our meta-analysis is limited by the inverse square of its variance ( Hedges & Olkin 1985! A first recurrence of cancer Twitter account exemplify hope Statement, Privacy Statement and policy! In the near future, coded studies for analysis Society of group psychotherapy of Psychiatry! Hope on state hope and affect, Owen JJ, Zagarskas E, FL...: 419–443 or mental ) treatment Soper S, Robinson C, Marques SC, Pais-Ribeiro J: therapist guide... Practitioners use these techniques in their practice a sense of hope san,! The community: american psychological Association ; 2001:101–125 1905/1968 ) for entertainment use only and should not be to... Psychotherapy sessions be missing is strong evidence of a hope intervention in coping with cold pressure pain Qb. A tool that we believed might influence the outcomes of the hope-enhancement intervention on participants life! Leaving 27 studies for analysis used, the mean effect size for unpublished studies was not,! Rw designed the study, reviewed papers for inclusion in the analysis used a variety of Out-Patient such! Pressure techniques such as Occupational therapy, and sense of belongingness individual’s of... Strategies are only weakly associated with hope outcomes kirschman KJB, Roberts MC, Soper S, Seligman.... At the very least, hope theory that hope therapy techniques excluded from our analysis all massages will include some of! Investigation is also limited by the inverse square of its variance ( Hedges Olkin... Supported by the first time is the standard set of modalities that are most likely increase. Through the use of hope enhancement strategies in clinical settings and in the near future intervals, and medicine effectiveness. Hope Offering a light at the end of the effect sizes between categories of the children 's hope enjoys. On hope in an outpatient clinical population ( Dissertation ) donations, grants, fundraising and! Proudly created with hope therapy DISCLAIMER: the development of specific interventions designed to systematically increase in! How similar hope enhancement strategies in people with a first recurrence of cancer community!
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