The civil war was a tragedy, for war was not wanted either by Caesar or by Pompey or even by a considerable part of the nobility, while the bulk of the Roman citizen body ardently hoped for the preservation of peace. Moreover, the legions that were present in Italy, were unreliable: for example, the fifteenth had been with Caesar in Gaul. on the banks of the Rubicon, Julius Caesar faced a critical choice. ), The united army, however, was defeated (7 July), and Caesar had only one option: to march inland, cross the Pindus mountains and defeat Pompey's pursuing army somewhere in Greece on a more suitable place. To him, the situation was clear: the Senate had seven legions in Hispania without commander, and Pompey was in Greece without army. Meanwhile, Crassus still had never completely overcome his … the supplement of dionysius vossius to caesar's first book of the civil war. It had believed that the issue was between a rebel and the legitimate rulers, and it had expected that the towns of Italy would send troops in defense of the authority of the Senate and the Roman People's liberties. Caesar wintered in Alexandria, fighting with the populace and dallying with Queen Cleopatra. However, it turned out that the Senate had made a disastrous mistake. An overwhelming majority in the Senate (400 against 22) wished both dynasts to lay down their extraordinary commands before the consular elections in December 50. In a secret alliance with Cicero, Octavian promised to veterans and soldiers that he will revenge Caesar’s death and he will generously reward anyone who move on to his side. The Battle of Munda was fought in March 45 BC and was the final battle of Julius Caesar's civil war and allowed him to return to Rome to rule as dictator. Caesar decided to attack the army first and recruited at least fourteen new legions (numbered XVI-XXX). During his conquest of Gaul, Caesar had been equally busy in preserving and improving his position at home. Home » Articles » Person » Caesar » Caesar (06), About Pictures Sources Countries Languages Categories Tags Thanks FAQ Donate Contact Articles Stubs. XIX.--Between Pompey's and Caesar's camp there was only the river Apsus, and … At least, that is what Caesar said. He was unaware of the fact that his opponents, the last republican diehards, had been able to regroup in Africa while he was honeymooning in Egypt. Caesar’s message was peremptory, and the Senate resolved that Caesar should be treated as a public enemy if he did not lay down his command “by a date to be fixed.”. Julius Caesar - Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45 bce | Britannica Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45 bce During his conquest of Gaul, Caesar had been equally busy in preserving and improving his position at home. In 47 bce he fought a brief local war in northeastern Anatolia with Pharnaces, king of the Cimmerian Bosporus, who was trying to regain Pontus, the kingdom of his father, Mithradates. They were sent to the east, where they had to defend Syria. If there were to be an interval, Caesar would be a private person during that time, vulnerable to attack by his enemies; if prosecuted and convicted, he would be ruined politically and might possibly lose his life. Unable to raise armies, the Senate was helpless. He changed the Roman republic into a monarchy and laid the foundations of … Would Caesar’s military genius have outweighed this handicap? Rome was officially in a civil war. He was also generous in granting Roman citizenship to aliens. (He had given it to all of Cisalpine Gaul, north of the Po, in 49 bce.) His physical constitution was unusually tough, though in his last years he had several epileptic seizures. 30m left . When they arrived, they learned that Pompey had been murdered by soldiers of the ten-year-old king Ptolemy XIII, who hoped to gain Caesar's support in his quarrel with his older sister Cleopatra VII. The Fifteenth, which seems to have sided with Caesar, and the new Sixteenth were ordered to occupy Africa, but were annihilated. Having pacified Egypt, Caesar and Cleopatra could spend some time together - at least enough for Cleopatra to claim to have become pregnant of a son, Caesarion - but then Caesar hurried off to Asia Minor, where Pharnaces II, the son of Mithridates of Pontus, had challenged Roman authority, and allied himself to the tribe of the Sarmatians. Death of Caesar. Caesar obeyed, but discovered that the legions were never employed in Syria. Julius Caesar, marble bust; in the Vatican Museums, Vatican City. As a safeguard for Caesar against this, there seems to have been an understanding—possibly a private one at Luca in 56 bce between him and Pompey—that the question of a successor to Caesar in his commands should not be raised in the Senate before March 1, 50 bce. On 10 January 49 BC, Roman general Julius Caesar defied an ultimatum set to him by the Senate. Having defeated Pompey and having calmed Egypt and Asia, the dictator was free to return to Rome (September 47). He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Again, Caesar showed clemency, sparing the enemy commanders and disbanding the defeated legions. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 - 15 March 44 BCE), Roman statesman, general, author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) and his subsequent coup d'état. The issue was brought to a head by one of the consuls for 50 bce, Gaius Claudius Marcellus. Julius Caesar The Civil War Audiobook MP3 CD NEW SEALED. The first bout of the civil war moved swiftly. $21.10. Meanwhile, Pompey was in Greece, and by drawing upon the resources of the eastern provinces and some client kings, he managed to raise an army of nine legions and a fleet of 300 ships, commanded by Bibulus (see above). There were, however, also a number of ex-Caesareans among the 60 conspirators. The answer can only be guessed from what he did do in the few months available. If Caesar refused to obey, he would be declared an enemy of the state; the Senate would be forced to appoint a commander with extraordinary powers. At his death, Caesar was on the point of starting out on a new military campaign to avenge and retrieve Crassus’s disastrous defeat in 53 bce by the Parthians. Julius Caesar was assassinated by about 40 Roman senators on the "ides of March" (March 15) 44 BCE. Meanwhile the cohesion of the triumvirate had been placed under strain. Caesar’s death was partly due to his clemency and impatience, which, in combination, were dangerous for his personal security. Who was the last monarch of the house of Hanover? Caesar's Civil War resulted from the long political subversion of the Roman Government's institutions, begun with the career of Tiberius Gracchus, continuing with the Marian reforms of the legions, the bloody dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, and completed by the First Triumvirate over Rome. $19.99. Rex Stout Nero Wolfe Mystery SOME BURIED CAESAR Unabridged Audio Book Cassette . Pharnaces was defeated in a rapid campaign at Zela ("I came, I saw, I conquered", veni, vidi, vici). Massilia refuses to admit Caesar. He then returned to Rome to start putting the Greco-Roman world in order. This was precisely what Caesar feared, and he tried to sent his veterans across the Adriatic: the legions V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XXVII and another legion were gathered at Brundisium (modern Brindisi). Remaining doubts must have disappeared when Caesar doubled the wages of the legionaries. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. After Crassus' death, only Pompey and Caesar remained, and the Senate feared a civil war from which a king would arise. Only guesses are possible, for Caesar’s assassination condemned the Romans to another 13 years of civil war, and Rome would never again possess sufficient manpower to conquer and hold Babylonia. Caesar had the support of the people and Pompey had the support of the aristocrats. Caesar heard the news in Ravenna, and knew that he had to make a choice between prosecution and rebellion; preferring the dignity of war over the humiliation of a process, Caesar chose to rebel, quoting his favorite poet Menander, "the die is cast" (alea iacta est). After picking up several legions in the neighborhood of Marseilles, Caesar crossed the Rhône and the Pyrenees with the legions VI, VII, VIIII, X, XI, XIV, XXVIII, XXIX and XXX, and defeated the Spanish army in the Battle of Ilerda, not far from modern Barcelona (2 August). Caesar invades Italy, Sardinia, Sicily. Caesar, dedicated to seizing the initiative whenever he could, ordered his men to march to southern Italy in an attempt to cut off Pompey’s army from a rendezvous with eastern allies. Caesar won, along with conservative Marcus Bibulus. Caesar pursued Pompey from Thessaly to Egypt, where Pompey was murdered by an officer of King Ptolemy. He thus committed the first act of war. Pompey survived the Battle of Pharsalus, and went to Egypt, followed by Caesar and the legions VI and XXVII. In 46 he crushed their army at Thapsus and returned to Rome, only to leave in November for Farther Spain to deal with a fresh outbreak of resistance, which he crushed on March 17, 45 bce, at Munda. The dates on which the issue turned are all in doubt. In 59 bce Caesar had already resurrected the city of Capua, which the republican Roman regime more than 150 years earlier had deprived of its juridical corporate personality; he now resurrected the other two great cities, Carthage and Corinth, that his predecessors had destroyed. Crassus was less fortunate: after his consulship, he became governor of Syria with special prerogatives, but was defeated by the Parthians, who lived in Mesopotamia and Iran. It turned out differently, because Caesar was in fact furious that he was not given the chance to pardon his eternal rival Pompey. Caesar's death resulted in a long series of civil wars that ended in the death of the Roman Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire. Crassus was killed in action at Carrhae in 53. Free shipping. Fully aware of the momentous nature of his decision, Caesar ignored the warning and began to march south on Rome. Thus clemency was probably not just a matter of policy. It is probably at this early stage of the war, that constituted the Sixteenth legion. Caesar's perspectives did not look great: nine of his legions were still on duty in Gaul (text). If the latter obeyed, he was no longer immune to prosecution. Two additional legions were still on their way to Greece but would arrive soon. The mistake wasn't in letting the situation get that far, but in that they believed the Roman and Italian people would rally to defend the Republican system. He later went to Egypt, where he became involved in the Egyptian civil war and installed Cleopatra on Egypt’s throne. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome. Instead, they remained in Italy. He had less than a year’s grace for this huge task of reconstruction before his assassination in 44 bce in the Senate House at Rome on March 15 (the Ides of March). In 45 bce he enacted a law laying down a standard pattern for the constitutions of the municipia, which were by this time the units of local self-government in most of the territory inhabited by Roman citizens. This was only a part of what he did to resettle his discharged soldiers and the urban proletariat of Rome. Deciding that belonging to the priesthood would bring the most benefit to the family, he managed to have himself nominated as the new High Priest of Jupiter. Download: A text-only version is available for download. On January 1, 49 bce, the Senate received from Caesar a proposal that he and Pompey should lay down their commands simultaneously. As had been agreed at Luca in 56 bce, Caesar’s commands had been prolonged for five years, apparently until February 28, 49 bce, but this is not certain. He started to train his army in the valley of the Moselle, far away from the Senate's spies. The alliance was patched up in April 56 bce at a conference at Luca (Lucca), just inside Caesar’s province of Cisalpine Gaul. See if your head can wear the crown of knowledge with this quiz. In the night of 10/11 January, the Thirteenth legion advanced to Rimini, where he could control the passes across the Apennines. Would Caesar have succeeded in recapturing for the Greco-Roman world the extinct Seleucid monarchy’s lost dominions east of the Euphrates, particularly Babylonia? Many of the leaders were jealous of Caesar and his following. “Et tu, Brute” (“You too, Brutus”) was Caesar’s expression of his particular anguish at being stabbed by a man whom he had forgiven, trusted, and loved. He then crushed Pompey’s army in Spain. And would Rome’s hitherto inexhaustible reservoir of military manpower have sufficed for this additional call upon it? When he entered Rome, a city where he had not been for ten years, Caesar pardoned instead of massacred his enemies and created a new Senate, which would authorize Caesar's acts (April 49). He obtained resolutions from the Senate that Caesar should lay down his command (presumably at its terminal date) but that Pompey should not lay down his command simultaneously. 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